These are examples where the Biblical Number 12 is sequenced as 11+1. For example consider the 12 tribes of Israel (not counting the Levites). God had given Moses strict instructions that the Levites were not to be numbered with the 12 tribes of Israel.
Of the 12 tribes, One of the tribes became the tribe of the kings of Israel. This is also the tribe that Jesus came from. This is the tribe of Judah. Therefore, we have the 11 regular tribes +1. Here are a few Biblical Examples to show How God set this tribe apart from the 11.
"8 Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise: thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies; thy father's children shall bow down before thee.
9 Judah is a lion's whelp: from the prey, my son, thou art gone up: he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up?
10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be."
God made David to be King over all Israel. God established the kingdom under him. God also sent the prophet Nathan to tell David about the future of His House in the Kingdom.
In 2 Samuel 7:16-17, the prophet Nathan told King David about God's message to him.
"16 And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be established for ever.
17 According to all these words, and according to all this vision, so did Nathan speak unto David."
In Revelation 5:4-5, no one was found worthy enough to opened the book of prophecies that God had written. In this scripture the Bible notes:
"4 And I wept much, because no man was found worthy to open and to read the book, neither to look thereon.
5 And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not: behold, the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof."
The 12 disciples of Jesus is another Biblical example where God sequenced the group using His 11+1 sequence. In the Bible, we can see examples where One disciple was the head of the group and thus became the +1 of the twelve.
In Matthews 16:15-19, Jesus blesses Peter and gives him authority among the 11 disciples.
"15 He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am?
16 And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.
17 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.
18 And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.
19 And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven."
Clearly, God chose Peter to be the leader of the disciples and gave him power.
Peter and the Dispensation of the Holy Spirit
Despite all of His trials, God still chose Peter to be the leader of the disciples. This became even more obvious after Jesus ascended into Heaven. Peter followed Jesus instructions and lead the disciples to the upper room to wait for the anointing of the Holy Spirit that Jesus had promised.
"12 Then returned they unto Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is from Jerusalem a sabbath day's journey.
13 And when they were come in, they went up into an upper room, where abode both Peter, and James, and John, and Andrew, Philip, and Thomas, Bartholomew, and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon Zelotes, and Judas the brother of James.
14 These all continued with one accord in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren.
15 And in those days Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples, and said, (the number of names together were about an hundred and twenty,)"
Peter lead the disciples when they took up the task of adding a new disciple known as Matthias to the group. This returned the number of prime disciples to 12. In Acts 2:1-4, the Bible describes what happened when the Holy Spirit came to those who waited in the upper room:
"1 And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place.
2 And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting.
3 And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them.
4 And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance."
"14 But Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice, and said unto them, Ye men of Judaea, and all ye that dwell at Jerusalem, be this known unto you, and hearken to my words:
15 For these are not drunken, as ye suppose, seeing it is but the third hour of the day.
16 But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel;
17 And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh: and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams:
18 And on my servants and on my handmaidens I will pour out in those days of my Spirit; and they shall prophesy:"
This is another example, where God sequenced the number 12 as 11+1 functionally.